The 
Daguerreian Society


Today's post is admittedly a post-dated item: from January 30. I am 
posted it today, however, as it represent the first of a series by W. 
H. Sherman, "The Rise and Fall of the Daguerreotype." This little-known 
series represents an important text in the literature of the 
daguerreotype. There are eight installments which, after today's post, 
will be posted on the day of their publication. The next installment 
will be March 13. The last of the series is December 18. Enjoy!

(Special thanks to Irving Pobboravsky for making me aware of this 
important text.)
---------------------

From The Photographic Times (New York; January 30, 1891; pp.52-3)


THE RISE AND FALL OF THE DAGUERREOTYPE.

(AS SEEN BY A COUNTRY "OPERATOR.")

  THE first daguerreotypists met with many difficulties and 
discouragements.  The inferior quality of the lenses which they were 
compelled for want of better to use, has already been alluded to.  This 
was but one item of their trouble.  Failures occurred from numberless 
causes which, to the inexperienced, and all then were included in that 
term, were inexplicable.  Little things which the unpracticed eye was 
unable to detect often produced the greatest mischief.  Neither were 
causes of trouble confined to visible things.  It would be difficult 
for photographers of the present day to realize how difficult it was, 
way back in the early forties--say any time previous to '45 or '46--to 
successfully manage, at all times, those little 3 1/4 x 2 5/6 silver 
plates (the size mostly used then) so as to obtain satisfactory 
results.  Failures often occurred from over or under exposure, and the 
limit beyond which this might be carried, or short of which it might 
fall, and the picture be saved, was very narrow.  But most failures and 
faults were due to some defect in the preparation of the plates 
previous to exposure.  What were the sources of these defects was a 
continual puzzle.  One trouble which every beginner soon became 
familiar with was called the "blues."  When that made its appearance 
white shirt fronts and white high lights were out of the question, and 
beautiful as is the color of the sky on a pleasant day, it was never 
popular when it usurped the place of white in a daguerreotype.  They 
were contagious, were the blues, and the human victim of the malady was 
bluer than the plates.

  To show the importance of a very small things, the second coating 
with iodine may be mentioned.  After Fizeau discovered the superiority 
of bromine as an accelerator(1) it was used at first only after the 
iodine.  But one day an operator, after having coated his plate as 
usual, in a moment of forgetfulness, began over again by putting it the 
second time over the iodine, when on withdrawing it and noticing the 
very unusual color, he remembered his mistake and supposed the plate 
was spoiled for that time, but concluded to try it, and was surprised 
by obtaining a better image than ever. 
 He had discovered an important improvement, which was at once 
universally adopted wherever known.

  It was gradually learned that dampness in the air, the emanations 
given off by fresh paint and spirits of turpentine, even musk and other 
strong perfumes were deleterious in their effects upon the sensitive 
plate.  From numerous and various causes the buffs became contaminated; 
then the plates would be utterly demoralized, and operations would have 
to suspended, perhaps for days, possibly for weeks, before the trouble 
would be remedied; the unfortunate proprietor, in the meantime, 
suspecting everything but the right one as the source of the 
difficulty.  If all the light which science and experience have shed 
upon the art of photography in fifty years has not yet disclosed all 
the little vexatious pitfalls and stumbling-blocks to be met with by 
those who are not quite beginners, it is probably not to be wondered at 
if those rustic pioneers on the frontiers of an unexplored art did 
sometimes get "rattled."

  The first daguerreotypists, outside of the cities, were generally 
those who had had no previous training suited to fit them for the 
calling.  One had been brought up on a farm, and fancied he would find 
in it easier work and better pay than following a plow or swinging a 
scythe.  Another had learned a trade which he thought was less 
promising than the new art, which he could learn in a few weeks.  A 
doctor or schoolmaster, who had leisure time at his disposal, saw, or 
believed he saw, a profitable and pleasant way of employing it.  Many 
were called, but few chosen.

  There was then no literature of the art.  No handbook had been 
printed; no journals were published.  Those who pretended to initiate 
the candidate into the mysteries were, with but few exceptions, in need 
of being themselves taught in the first principles of the knowledge 
which they professed to impart.

  The consequence was that before long hardly a country village could 
be found in the parts which I visited that had not its resident 
daguerreotypist already on the retired list, but not, I grieve to say, 
on half pay.  Rather because he had not been able to make it half pay.

  Sometimes, one who had not disposed of his outfit would dabble at odd 
times with the illusory pastime to which distance had once lent 
enchantment, in the vague hope of finding smoother paths and ways of 
pleasantness, from which he had evidently wandered through the 
inadvertency of incompetent guides.  One in relating his experience to 
me admitted his suspicion that his kemeery was no better that it ought 
to be; that it was slow, didn't cut very sharp, and when the hands came 
into the picture, they looked too large.  But he had been told that it 
could be made to work like one of the very best by putting a diagram in 
it.  (Central stops were not then in general use.)

  He also related how he had been humbugged by a fellow who sold him a 
receipt for making his own chloride of gold.  He procured a piece of 
coin and the necessary acids as prescribed by his costly formula, 
putting all together into a tin dish which he had purchased new to make 
sure of its being clean.  As his stewpan boiled and frothed and smoked 
the choking fumes caused him to retire to a respectful distance and 
await developments.  When at length the effervescence and smoke 
subsided he proceeded to take account of the net assets accrued from 
this experiment in alchemy, and found, so he said, "nothing but a dirty 
black mess of stuff that biled over onto the floor and the gold gone to 
the d----,"

  It was before one of these primitive machines that an old lady sat 
one day until she wept.  Then the magician who was conducting the 
necromancy withdrew, with his plate-holder and tablet, behind the 
curtain where the pot of fuming hydrargyrum was hid from eyes profane.  
In due time issuing thence empty handed, he solemnly addressed his 
waiting patroness as follows:  "Madam, I regret to say that the former 
sitting was too prolonged.  May I ----"  She interrupted him by 
gleefully exclaiming, "There, I knew it, I knew it.  A little while 
before you put that cover on there, I thought I felt it draw!"

  So well pleased was she with this verification of her inner 
promptings that she was willing to sit again and give him notice when 
to stop.

  The above report from the dark closet was in effect the conventional 
formula for the first failure.  It was oftener that the unfortunate 
operator did not know the cause of the failure, but in the hope that 
the next trial might not turn out still worse, he wished to keep up the 
spirits of his sitter with the prospect of a less tedious ordeal, and 
so it was thought expedient to report that the one already passed 
through was too long.  Besides it was strictly true that it had been 
too long--for the sitter.

  But for the knights of the camera who valiantly held on their way a 
better time was coming.  The new lens had come and was proving a weapon 
of strength to those who provided themselves with it.  Little by little 
it was learned how to shun failure and achieve success.  Already the 
names of several recognized leaders had become well known, among the 
foremost of whom as I recall them were Root and Langenheim, of 
Philadelphia; Gurney and Brady, of New York; Whipple and Black, of 
Boston.  This was forty-four years ago.

W. H. Sherman.

(To be continued.)

------------------------------------------------------------------
(1) Sherman corrects this error crediting Fizeau with the discovery of 
bromine acceleration in the second part of the series.

(First of eight serialized parts from 30 January, 1891 to 18 December, 
1891. Next installment appears 13 March 1891)

(Transcriber's note: Both spacing between paragraphs, and double spaces 
between sentences are per the original presentation. Original errors of 
grammar/spelling maintained.)
-------------------------------------------------------------
Posted for your enjoyment.     Gary W. Ewer    
-------------------------------------------------------------
03-09-97


Return to: DagNews 1997

homepage society info search
resources galleries


Copyright 1996, The Daguerreian Society - http://www.daguerre.org